for Citing Electronic Sources in your Web Projects
the completely frustrating and confusing world of citing electronic sources.
The modes of information transfer have far outrun the rules and conventions
for citations. The link to the “Bedford/St. Martin’s Guide
for Citing Internet Sources” on our home page is the most current
one that I have found:
to the MLA format may seem (and actually is) a bothersome process, it
gives your work authority and says to your audience, “I’m
taking this seriously, so you should take me seriously. I speak the language
of scholarship.” More importantly, it frees you from any suspicion
of academic dishonesty.
some tips that I hope will help you as you encounter some common problems
in creating your web projects in Frontpage.
are working on your web projects, Frontpage will prevent you from using
the hanging indent that you would normally use after the first line of
your citations in a Word document. MLA (The Modern Language Association
– the maker and keeper of the rules) has finally recognized the
problem, and you can now single space the electronic citations and left
justify them. You can also bullet them if you choose.
items in your citation in the following order. When your website does
not have an item, just omit it and go to the next one. Every entry should
at least have the name of the webpage, the date of access, and the URL.
Arrange your entries alphabetically.
(last name first). “Name of article (in quotation marks).”
Name of Webpage (in italics). Date of posting or last update.
Name of sponsoring institution. Date of access. <URL in angle brackets>
Thomas, compiler. Virginia Runaways. 27 October 2003. University
of Virginia Etext Library. 30 August 2004. <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/costa-browse?id=r63110149>
with the Light Brown Hair.” American Experience: Stephen Foster.
2000. PBS. 30 August 2004. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/foster/gallery/index.html>
Steven. “Defining Slavery.” 30 August 2004. Digital
History. 30 August 2004. <http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/black_voices/voices_display.cfm?id=3>
History automatically updates the site every day, so the latest update
and the date you access the site will always be the same.
that I am writing an essay using the above sources . . . .
When I am
carefully paraphrasing or directly quoting from these sources in my text,
I will use in-text parenthetical citations that will correspond to the
citations at the end of my page, including enough information to send
my reader to the correct entry. The first word/s in the citation will
usually be enough.
if I’m writing about the lyrics to “Jeanie with the Light
Brown Hair,” I’ll just end my sentence like this (“Jeanie”).
paraphrasing or quoting from the Virginia Runaways site, I’ll
end my sentence like this (Costa).
paraphrasing or quoting information on colonial slavery from Digital
History, I’ll end my sentence like this (Mintz). If I have more
than one entry from Digital History, I’ll have to include a few
more words, since every entry will begin with Dr. Mintz’s name.
can then go to the correct entry in the Works Cited for the complete citation.
images in your Works Cited:
To cite an
image from a website include these items in your citation in the following
order. When your website does not have an item, just omit it and go to
the next one. Every entry should at least have an identification of the
image, the name of the website, the date of access, and the URL.
Artist (last name first). Identify the image. Date of image/painting/photograph.
Online image. Name of Webpage (in italics). Date of posting
or last update. Name of sponsoring institution. Date of access. <URL
in angle brackets>
Example of Painting or Photograph in a collection (italics, please):
John. Empire Diner. 1976. Online image. 16 April 2004. <http://www.johnbaeder.com/Oils/1976-EmpireDiner.htm>
Thomas. Grand Canyon, Yellowstone. 1872. Online image. Renaissance
Gallery. 18 Jan. 2004. <http://www.renaissance-gallery.net/page70.html>
Walker. Penny Picture Display. 1936. Museum of Modern Art,
New York. 18 Jan. 2004. <http://www.momw.org/collection/photography/pages/evens.penny.html>
of General Images (quotation marks, please):
Logos." Online images. Wikipedia. 14 April 2004. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft>
of Independence." Online image. Wikipedia. 14 April 2004.
Ford." Online image. Wikipedia. 14 April 2004. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_Ford>
X" Online image. Militante Portal. 30 Apr. 2004
Slave Advertisement from Virginia Gazette.” 1752. Online
image. Costa, Thomas, compiler. Virginia Runaways. 27 October
2003. University of Virginia Etext Library. 30 August 2004. <http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/costa-browse?id=r52010095>
on the Google Image Search:
include an image you found with Google Image Search, use the information
from the original site of the image. Otherwise, you will have the super-long
URL of the image itself. Do a Google Image Search and you’ll see
what I mean. The Image Search always gives you the “original context”
of the image. That will be shorter as well as more accurate to use.
traditional essays, using Word, consult the link on our homepage:
Go to “Documenting
Sources in Humanities.” Click on the sample MLA paper which is
extremely helpful. It always helps to see how a paper should actually
look. You’ll also be able to see a sample Works Cited page.
keep in mind that the purpose of citations, in addition to your attention
to scholarly attribution, is to give your reader enough information to
find your source.